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Throughout the history of China, fox spirits have been a large part of the country’s culture; they are such a part of society that they are still around today. In ancient China, fox spirits were often written about to guide readers towards certain principles. The use of female foxes, specifically, demonstrates the ways in which women at the time were viewed, and what values were seen as desirable in ancient Chinese women. In ancient Chinese literature, female foxes were presented as incredibly beautiful, alluring young women. They enchanted men so that they could sleep with them and drain the man of his essence. In TheRead More →

In ancient China, women had a very low social status, and it was extremely uncommon for them to have influence. However, Empress Wu, who ruled during the Tang dynasty between the years 690 and 705, is one example of a woman who was able to rise to power. Rather than coming from royalty herself, she started in court as Gaozong’s concubine. He later installed her as empress, and after his death in 683 she took full charge, declaring herself emperor. (1) According to X.L. Woo in his book Empress Wu the Great: Tang Dynasty China, along with being a woman who gained an immense amountRead More →

The “Tribute of Yu” is part of the Book of Documents, part of a series of Confucian texts called the Five Classics, which were recorded during the Warring States Period. The “Tribute of Yu” is details the efforts of Yu the Great, founder of the Xia dynasty, as he divided China into provinces; the document tells where the different areas are in relation to each other, describes the boundaries of each province, and ranks the soil based on the tributes each province can offer. One key aspect of the “Tribute of Yu” is that his actions are a human accomplishment, rather than a divine one.Read More →